Footnotes

Footnotes

[a] Increasing the share of renewables in global mix from current today’s 18% to 36% by 2030, would allow CO2 emissions savings of 8.6 Gt; additional savings of about 7.3 Gt of CO2 could be achieved if doubling the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency also takes place[4].

[b] CERES (2014) provides 10 key recommendations for investors, companies and policymakers to increase annual global investment in clean energy to at least $1 trillion by 2030. Among them, supporting regulatory reforms to electric utility business models and support policies to de-risk deployment of clean energy sources and technologies[6].

[c] According to IRENA (2014), 5.7 million people were employed in the renewable energy industry worldwide in 2012[7]

[d] Reference [10] discusses support policy instruments for renewable energy heat generation in particular. However, both, advantages and disadvantages of different instruments as discussed in the article would also apply to electricity generation.

[e] E.g. economic policy-making tradition, exact political definition and scope, technological dimension or location of policy execution[13].

[f] Excluding investments in large hydro and including smart technologies.

[g] 5% for large projects; 5.6% for smaller ones [28].

[h] 4.5% [28].

[i] Or over  $1.9 trillion (almost 10% of the world´s governmental state budgets) when considering lower value-added taxes for fossil fuels compared to other traded commodities, and externalities of $ 25/ton of CO[33]

[j] This unfavourable balance of investments, augmented by the huge economic support given to fossil fuels, have locked-in the global energy system to 550 billion tons of cumulative CO2 emissions up to 2035[29].

[k] Investments in conventional energy, particularly fossil fuels have been growing since 1995. It is estimated that, the additional cost of the fossil infrastructure incurred since 1995 is equivalent to $2,778 billion in 2013 alone[35].

[l] All descriptions taken from IPCC (2011) [39].

[m] All examples taken from IEA/IRENA (2013) [40]. All examples classified as “In force” by original source.

[n] All descriptions taken from IPCC (2011) [39].

[o] All examples taken from IEA/IRENA (2013) [40]. All examples classified as “In force” by original source.

[p] All descriptions taken from IPCC (2011) [39].

[q] All examples taken from IEA/IRENA (2013) [40]. All examples classified as “In force” by original source.

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